The expansion of the shipbuilding industry in Britain and the United States between 1938 and 1945 was one of the greatest economic feats in history. This study examines in detail the unprecedented growth both in total industrial capacity and that of individual shipyards. Lindberg and Todd go beyond the normal descriptive historical account of this expansion to analyze it through the application of a geographical perspective. Specifically, they apply the geographic concepts of clustering and agglomeration to the merchant and naval shipbuilding industries of both nations during this vital era. Beginning with the emergence of a modern shipbuilding capability in the late nineteenth century, the authors examine how these geographic concepts were progressively implemented in both the United States and Britain as a result of new technological demands on navies as well as changing geostrategic considerations. While World War I marked the initial large-scale example of clustering/agglomeration, the interwar period would witness a quick demise of both the industry and the major shipyard agglomerations. This important work explains how, as a result of the war, the governments and the shipbuilding industries of two nations were able to reconstitute and greatly expand their capabilities in the face of ever-increasing demands for both warships and merchant vessels.
The thesis of the present volume is critical and dual. (1) Present day philosophy of man and sciences of man suffer from the Greek misÂ taken polarization of everything human into nature and convention which is (allegedly) good and evil, which is (allegedly) truth and falÂ sity, which is (allegedly) rationality and irrationality, to wit, the polarÂ ization of all fields of inquiry, the natural and social sciences, as well as ethics and all technology, whether natural or social, into the totally positive and the totally negative. (2) Almost all philosophy and sciÂ ences of man share the erroneous work ethic which is the myth of man's evil nature - the myth of the beast in man, the doctrine of original sin. To mediate or to compromise between the first view of human nature as good with the second view of it as evil, sociologists have devised a modified utilitarianism with deferred gratification soÂ called, and the theory of the evil of artificial competition (capitalist and socialist alike) and of keeping up with the Joneses. Now, the mediation is not necessary. For, the polarization makes for abstract errors which are simplistic views of rationality, such as reductionism and positivism of all sorts, as well as for concrete errors, such as the disposition to condemn repeatedly those human weaknesses which are inevitable, namely man's inability to be perfectly rational, avoid all error, etc. , thus setting man against himself as all too wicked.
Over the course of the twentieth century, democracies demonstrated an uncanny ability to win wars when their survival was at stake. As this book makes clear, this success cannot be explained merely by superior military equipment or a particular geographical advantage. Instead, it is argued that the legal frameworks imbedded in democratic societies offered them a fundamental advantage over their more politically restricted rivals. For democracies fight wars aided by codes of behaviour shaped by their laws, customs and treaties that reflect the wider values of their society. This means that voters and the public can influence the decision to wage and sustain war. Thus, a precarious balance between government, parliament and military leadership is the backbone of any democracy at war, and the key to success or failure. Beginning with the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writings of Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius, this book traces the rise of legal concepts of war between states. It argues that the ideas and theories set out by the likes of Gentili and Grotius were to provide the bedrock of western democratic thinking in wartime. The book then moves on to look in detail at the two World Wars of the twentieth century and how legal thinking adapted itself to the realities of industrial and total war. In particular it focuses upon the impact of differing political ideologies on the conduct of war, and how combatant nations were frequently forced to challenge core beliefs and values in order to win. Through a combination of history and legal philosophy, this book contributes to a better understanding of democratic government when it is most severely tested at war. The ideas and concepts addressed will resonate, both with those studying the past, and current events.
This is a practical guide that offers a lucid introduction to the principles of MRI physics. The author, recognized in the imaging community for his exceptional teaching methods and lectures, has written an easy to understand text. Each chapter explains the "why" and "how" behind MRI physics. Readers will understand how altering MRI parameters will have many different consequences for image quality and the speed in which images are generated. Practical topics, selected for their value to clinical practice, include progressive changes in key MRI parameters, imaging time, and signal to noise ratio. A wealth of high quality illustrations, complemented by concise text, enables readers to gain a thorough understanding of the subject without requiring prior in-depth knowledge.
This book brings the insights of theatre theory to the jurisprudential, in order to elaborate a new practice of responsibility. The theatrical, which here forms the basis of a theatrical jurisprudence, draws upon the forms of theatre theory that took shape in the 20th century, as they constitute training in a particular form of morality, inculcating a sense of responsibility beyond the self. Such forms of conduct are deeply resonant with the intentions of the jurisprudential, but with one key difference. The training of the performer is one that is rigorous and demanding, working with the body as well as demanding an awareness of self in and through time and space. This, then, is a training designed to inculcate responsibility through the body as well as the mind. Law necessarily discards the body as having no role in its interpretative practice. Indeed bodies are abjured by law, theologically, philosophically, politically and pragmatically. The body might be the subject of regulation and control, but the one thing that law and its jurisprudents seek to avoid is their own bodily responses and reactions. In contrast, theatrical jurisprudence is grounded on the materiality of bodily encounters. Demanding a self-awareness and responsiveness on the part of the lawyer and jurisprudent, it insists on bringing a deeply engaged self-awareness into law's interpretative practices.
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