Over the course of the twentieth century, democracies demonstrated an uncanny ability to win wars when their survival was at stake. As this book makes clear, this success cannot be explained merely by superior military equipment or a particular geographical advantage. Instead, it is argued that the legal frameworks imbedded in democratic societies offered them a fundamental advantage over their more politically restricted rivals. For democracies fight wars aided by codes of behaviour shaped by their laws, customs and treaties that reflect the wider values of their society. This means that voters and the public can influence the decision to wage and sustain war. Thus, a precarious balance between government, parliament and military leadership is the backbone of any democracy at war, and the key to success or failure. Beginning with the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writings of Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius, this book traces the rise of legal concepts of war between states. It argues that the ideas and theories set out by the likes of Gentili and Grotius were to provide the bedrock of western democratic thinking in wartime. The book then moves on to look in detail at the two World Wars of the twentieth century and how legal thinking adapted itself to the realities of industrial and total war. In particular it focuses upon the impact of differing political ideologies on the conduct of war, and how combatant nations were frequently forced to challenge core beliefs and values in order to win. Through a combination of history and legal philosophy, this book contributes to a better understanding of democratic government when it is most severely tested at war. The ideas and concepts addressed will resonate, both with those studying the past, and current events.
The Straw Man of Attrition Attrition and the Advent of Total War Seasons in the Abyss The Kokoda Trail Undertow The Burma Campaign New Roots, Korea 1950-1951 Coercing Communist Concessions Losing Momentum Attrition after Korea Attrition as an Operational Strategy Bibliography Index
Set in the year 2030, this story of advanced war follows the International Peacekeepers Coalition in their fight against a Brotherhood set on total world domination. Follow General Amador, a veteran military officer and his right-hand-man, Commander Max Mitchell, as they take on the devious and malicious Holt Moire, who wants no less than supreme command over the world. Innovative technology has allowed each faction to expand their bases to beyond the surface of the Earth. While General Amador leads from within a commanding space station called the Vitality, Holt Moire has chosen to go subterranean, building bases and structures underneath the Earth. With the use of futuristic technology and weapons, both factions are thrown into exciting and unstable battles as each leader tries to outwit the other in a plethora of skirmishes, siege, and rescue missions. An intertwining tale of conflict, espionage, and survival that comes full-circle.
One of the foremost historians of intellectual life and education in Germany, Fritz Ringer has brought together in this volume several of his articles, most of which are not easily available are published here in English for the first time. They focus on a whole range of contemporary and historical debates about the relationship between ideas and their context, the role of education and middle-class consciousness, the social role of academics and intellectuals, and competing ideals of learning, science, and history.
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