COCKTAIL or COCKTAIL-PARTY The ability to concentrate our attention on the speech of a specific speaker by disregarding parasite information coming from the surroundings... From the physical perspective, one of the predominant elements is the spatial separation of noise and speech. On the psychophysiological level, selective listening is governed by our capacity to discriminate sounds from different sources - by our capacity to localize in the noise. Related effects: ASYNDETON Never before has the "everyday soundtrack" of urban space been so cacophonous. Since the 1970s, sound researchers have attempted to classify noise, music, and everyday sounds using concepts such as Pierre Shafer's "sound object" and R. Murray Schafer's "soundscape." Recently, the most significant team of soundscape researchers in the world has been concerned with the effects of sounds on listeners. In a multidisciplinary work spanning musicology, electro-acoustic composition, architecture, urban studies, communication, phenomenology, social theory, physics, and psychology, Jean-Francois Augoyard, Henry Torgue, and their associates at the Centre for Research on Sonic Space and the Urban Environment (CRESSON) in Grenoble, France, provide an alphabetical sourcebook of eighty sonic/auditory effects. Their accounts of sonic effects such as echo, anticipation, vibrato, and wha-wha integrate information about the "objective" physical spaces in which sounds occur with cultural contexts and individual auditory experience. Sonic Experience attempts to rehabilitate general acoustic awareness, combining accessible definitions and literary examples with more in-depth technical information for specialists.
Walter Eltis's work has played a major role in the rediscovery of the policy relevance of classical economics. His articles on Smith, Quesney, Ricardo and Malthus, where he derives their underlying economic argument from a detailed examination of their principal publications, led to the Bacon and Eltis theory which challenged Keynesian orthodoxy. It showed how growing public expenditure and increasing public debt reduce economic growth and destabilize modern economies. This volume includes a selection of his key articles and papers, as well as an extensive introductory essary which provides an account of the evolution of his ideas and their impact on economic policy.
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